archaic poetry

archaic thought

Works&Days commentary

Averroës translation

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 Hesiod bibliography

 philosophy bibliography

 Pandora bibliography




References for What Pandora let out and what she left in.

(read at the meeting of the Classical Association of Atlantic States, Oct. 6, 2006, with additions through 4/16/12 as noted)


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Ancient Sources Cited:

Theognis 1135-38; pseudo-Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 250; Callimachus fragment 177 (Pfeiffer); Comanus of Naucratis, reported by the scholiast on Works and Days 97 (= fragment 16 Dyck); Aristarchus of Samothrace, ibid. (= fragment 6 Waeschke); Philodemus of Gadara, On Piety 130.1-8; Babrius 58.



The slide of British Museum F147 {was} taken from Reeder, E. D., ed., Pandora. Women in Classical Greece (Princeton 1995) 51. See alternatively Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae VII.2: 100, or Neils (below) 38-39.


Modern References Cited:

Aparicio Villalonga, C., 2009. Anàlisi de la noció dhetera i la seva relació amb lactivitat intel-

            lectual i filosòfica femenina a la Grècia antiga, available on the University of the Balearic

            Islands website here, 93-115. (the escaped contents are bad; Elpis is preserved;

            her character is ambiguous) {Added 5/18/10}

Arrighetti, G., ed. 1998. Esiodo Opere (Turin), 413-16. (bad; preserved; ambiguous)

Bartlett, R. C. 2006. An Introduction to Hesiods Works and Days, Review of Politics 68:

            177-205, at 185-86. (escaped contents bad; Elpis partly preserved, partly not; she is bad

            to the extent she is among men, good to the extent she remains in the jar away from men)

{Added 5/31/08}

Beall, E. F. 1989. The Contents of Hesiods Pandora Jar: Erga 94-98, Hermes 117: 227-30.

            (escaped contents good; Elpis preserved; her isolation bad)

-------. 2006. Review of Musäus, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2006.07.16.

Blümer, W. 2001. Interpretation archaischer Dichtung: die mythologischen Partien der Erga Hesiods,

            2 vols. (Münster), II 179-200. (bad; Elpis imprisoned; she is bad)

Bremmer, J. M. 2000. Pandora or the Creation of a Greek Eve, in The creation of man and woman,

             ed. G. P. Luttikhuizen (Leiden), 19-33; reprinted in J. M. Bremmer, Greek religion and culture,

             the Bible, and the ancient Near East (Leiden, 2008), 19-34. (bad; unstated; uncertain)

             {Added 10/8/10}

Byrne, S. N. 1998. Ἐί in Works and Days 90-105, Syllecta Classica 9: 37-46. (bad; imprisoned;


Cassanmagnago, C. 2009. Esiodo. Tutte le opere e i frammenti: con la prima traduzione degli scolii

(Milan), 48-49, 182-85, 952 ns. 26-29 (bad; imprisoned; formally neutral but actually cold

comfort) {Added 3/15/10}

Clay, J. S. 2003. Hesiods Cosmos (Cambridge), 124-25. (bad; preserved; mostly bad)

-------. 2009. Works and Days: Tracing the path to Arete, in Brills Companion to

Hesiod, eds. F. Montanari, A. Rengakos, and C. Tsagalis (Leiden/Boston),

71-90, at 77-78. (not stated; preserved; lacks certainty but makes life bearable)

{Added 2/15/10}


Ercolani, A. 2010. Esiodo, Opere e giorni (Rome).

------- 2011. Additional material downloadable from


(or if this URL does not work with your browser, go to www.carocci.it, enter Ercolani in the search

box, click on Esiodo, Opere e giorni, and click on allegati; in either case, in the resulting page

click on on any given allegato, whereupon before the download you will be asked to register

if you have not done so previously, or enter your password if you have).

(bad; preserved; summarizes the possibilities without ruling definitively)

{Added 7/29/11}

Fasciano, D.  2005.  Pandore, la première femme, Rivista di Cultura Classica e Medioevale

            47: 9-22, esp. 14-15.  (bad; preserved; bad) {Added 9/20/07}

Fraser, L.-G..  2011.  A woman of consequence: Pandora in Hesiods Works and Days,

             Cambridge Classical Journal 57: 9-28, esp. 22-24. (bad; elpis is both preserved and good, and

            imprisoned and bad) {Added 4/16/12}

Holzhausen, J. 2004. Das Übel der Frauen. Zu Hesiods Pandora-Mythos, Würzburger Jahrbücher

            für die Altertumswissenschaft N.F. 28b: 5-29. (I have not had access to this article.

            According to Krajczynski and Rösler, its conclusions on the pithos narrative are substantially
            those of Musäus.)
            {Added 10/24/06: I have now seen this article.  In fact Holzhausen (23-26) anticipates

            Krajczynski and Rösler (as indeed they acknowledge, 20 n. 26, although I originally missed

            the point) in saying that Pandora plays the role of the housewife managing the provisions in

            the pithos.  He does agree with Musäus on the role of elpis.}

Kaplanian, P.  2011.  Mythes grecs dorigin. I. Prométhée et Pandore (Paris). (???; see note in main article)

           {Added 1/9/13}

Krajczynski, J. and W. Rösler. 2006. Die Substanz der Hoffnung: Zum Pandora-Mythos in Hesiods

            Erga, Philologus 150: 14-27. (contents provisions; elpis figure for seed-grain left in jar)

Lauriola, R. 2000. Elpis e la giara di Pandora (Hes. Op. 90-104): il bene e il male nella vita

            delluomo, Maia 52: 9-18. (bad; preserved; good)

Lev Kenaan, V. 2008. Pandoras Senses. The Feminine Character of the Ancient Text (Madison, WI),

            88-89. (bad; preserved; [implicitly] good) {Added 4/17/08} {5/9/08: 12-13 for Erasmus}

Manakidou, F. 2006. ;

             (Tracing out the Works and Days: The dialectics of

            Hesiods world and the question of the poems structure), in Mousaôn Archômetha,

            N. P. Bezantakos and Ch. C. Tsagalis, eds. (Athens), 257-394, at 313-314 (bad; preserved;

            intentionally ambiguous) {Added 11/8/10}

Montiglio, S. 2005. Wandering in ancient Greek culture (Chicago), 65-68. (bad; preserved;

            ambiguous) {Added 5/15/09)

Musäus, I. 2004. Der Pandoramythos bei Hesiod und seine Rezeption bis Erasmus von Rotterdam

            (Göttingen), 10, 30-41, 67-94, 108-15, 179-82. (provisions; hope for new provisions)

Neils, J. 2005. The Girl in the Pithos: Hesiods Elpis, in Periklean Athens and its Legacy. Problems

            and Perspectives, eds. J. M. Barringer and J. M. Hurwit (Austin), 37-45. (bad; imprisoned;

Nelson, S. 1998. God and the Land (Oxford), 67. (bad; preserved; ambiguous)

Ogden, D. 1998. What was in Pandoras box, in Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence,

eds. N. Fisher and H. van Wees (London), 213-30. (bad; imprisoned; ambivalent shading toward

bad) {Added 3/13/10}

Oppermann, M. 1994. Pandora, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae VII.1: 163-67,
            at 164.

Panofsky, D. and E. 1965. Pandoras Box, rev. 2nd ed. (New York) 14-26.

Sánchez Ortiz de Landaluce, M. 1998. El mito de Pandora en Hesíodo: un nuevo análisis

            interpretativo de un relato esperanzador, Minerva 12: 41-52. (bad; preserved; good)

Schroeder, C. M. 2006. Hesiod in the Hellenistic Imagination. University of Michigan dissertation.

            {Added 9/29/07}

Schwartz, E. 1956 [1915]. Prometheus bei Hesiod, in his Gesammelte Schriften, Vol. 2 (Berlin),

            42-62, esp. 51-55. (provisions; Elpis puzzling)

Schwinge, E.-R. 2009. Die Hoffnung im Fa: Abermals Hesiods Pandorageschichte, Hermes 137: 393-402.

(provisions; preserved; bad although humans think it good) {Added 10/5/10}

Solmsen, F. 1949. Hesiod and Aeschylus (Ithaca), 83. (bad; Elpis not understandable)

Warman, L.  2004.  Hope in a Jar, Mouseion 48: 107-19.  (good; preserved; emotion-tinged

            uncertainty about the future, if objectively an obstacle to success) {Added 9/17/07}

West, M. L. 1978. Hesiod: Works and Days (Oxford), 168-72. (bad; preserved; good)

Verdenius, W. J. 1985. A Commentary on Hesiod: Works and Days, vv. 1-382 (Leiden 1985), 62-74.

            (bad; imprisoned; bad)

Wolkow, B. M. 2007. The Mind of a Bitch: Pandoras Motive and Intent in the Erga, Hermes 135: 247-62.

{Pandora thought the contents were provisions, whatever they actually were} {Added 9/24/09}

Zarecki, J. P. 2007. Pandora and the Good Eris in Hesiod, Greek, Roman, And Byzantine Studies

             47: 5-29, esp. 19-25. (good; preserved; fundamentally neutral) {Added 1/23/08}


Bibliographical References:

For a listing of modern studies of the myth through 1996, see Blümer II 239-395.

For ancient and medieval views, quoted in Greek or Latin with German translation, see Musäus 67-182.

{Added 10/23/06: On the matter of comparing the jar to the womb, Musäus (10) cites the works of Warman and Zeitlin from the 1990s, but an earlier reference is Geneviève Hoffman, Pandora, la jarre et l'espoir, Quaderni di Storia 24 (1986), 55-89.  Also, the idea has been embraced outside the orbit of classics scholars, in particular by some in the psycho-analytic community; see especially Anna Potamianou, Hope: a shield in the economy of borderline states, transl. P. Slotkin (London and New York, 1997; original French, 1992), 5-10.}

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